Calyx has an attribute system that allows information to be associated with every basic Calyx construct. This information can then be used to optimize the program or change how the program is compiled.

Attributes can decorate lots of things in Calyx: components, groups, cells, ports, and control statements. The syntax looks like name<"attr"=value> for components and groups or @attr(value) for other constructs. Attributes always map keys to values. Because it's common to have a "Boolean" attribute that always maps to the value 1, the syntax @attr is a shorthand for @attr(1).

Here is the syntax for attributes in different parts of the AST:

Component and Port Attributes

component main<"static"=10>(@go go: 1) -> (@done done: 1) {

Cell Attributes

cells {
  @external mem = comb_mem_d1(32, 8, 4);
  reg = std_reg(32);

Group Attributes

group cond<"promotable"=1> {

Control Attributes

control {
  @promotable(3) seq {
    @promotable(1) A;
    @promotable(2) B;

Meaning of Attributes


The entrypoint for the Calyx program. If no component has this attribute, then the compiler looks for a component named main. If neither is found, the compiler errors out.

go, done, clk and reset

These four ports are part of the interface to Calyx components. These are automatically added by the parser if they are missing from the component definition. go and done provide the mechanism for how an "outer" component invokes an "inner" cell that it contains. clk and reset thread through the global clock and resetting signal in a design.


By default, interface ports are automatically added to a component by the parser if they are missing. Adding this attribute disables this behavior.


The external attribute has meaning when it is attached to a cell. It has two meanings:

  1. If the externalize compiler alias is enabled, the cell is turned into an "external" cell by exposing all its ports through the current component and rewriting assignments to the use the ports. See the documentation on externalize for more information.
  2. If the cell is a memory and has an external attribute on it, the Verilog backend (-b verilog) generates code to read <cell_name>.dat to initialize the memory state and dumps out its final value after execution.


This is now deprecated. See the promotable and interval attributes.


Can be attached to groups, control, and @go ports of components. This tells the compiler how long the group/control would take if it were promoted to static. This is just a hint, and is free to be ignored by the compiler. However, the compiler may use it in the static-promotion pass to upgrade dynamic constructs to static<n> ones.


This can be attached to the @go ports of dynamic components (both primitives or Calyx-defined components). This tells the compiler that if you assert the @go port for cycles [0,n), then the done signal will be asserted on cycle n. This is different from @promotable since it provides a guarantee rather than a hint. Attach @interval to @go ports essentially means that the component can serve "double duty": it can be used in both static and dynamic contexts. This is common for things like registers.


Used by the inline pass on cell definitions. Instructs the pass to completely inline the instance into the parent component and replace all invokes of the instance with the control program of the instance.


Used by the canonicalize pass. Only meaningful on output ports and states that their value is provided by a sequential element and is therefore available outside combinational time.

For example, after invoking a multiplier, the value on its out port remains latched till the next invocation.

For example

cells {
  m = std_mult_pipe(32);
wires {
  group use_m_out { // uses m.out }
control {
  invoke m(left = 32'd10, right = 32'd4)();

The value of m.out in use_m_out will be 32'd40.

This annotation is currently used by the primitives library and the Dahlia frontend.


Can be attached to a component and indicates that a component can be shared across groups. This is used by the -p cell-share to decide which components can be shared.


Can be attached to a component and indicates that a component can be shared across groups. Different than share since state_share components can have internal state. This is used by -p cell-share to decide which components can be shared. Specifically, a component is state shareable if each write to that component makes any previous writes to the component irrelevant. The definition of a "write to a component" is an activiation of the component's "go" port, followed by a read of the component's "done" port (in other words, the read of a "done" port still counts as part of a "write" to the component). For c1 and c2, instances of a state_shareable component: instantiate c1 instantiate c2 any write to c1 any write to c2 write value v to port p in c1 write value v to port p in c2 c1 and c2 should be equal.


Used in infer-static-timing and static-timing when the number of iterations of a While control is known statically, as indicated by n.


Added by ir::Builder to denote that the cell was added by a pass.


Marks the special clock signal inserted by the clk-insertion pass, which helps with lowering to RTL languages that require an explicit clock.


Used by the papercut pass. Defines a group n of signals that all must be driven together:

primitive comb_mem_d2<"static"=1>[WIDTH, D0_SIZE, D1_SIZE, D0_IDX_SIZE, D1_IDX_SIZE](
  @write_together(2) addr0: D0_IDX_SIZE,
  @write_together(2) addr1: D1_IDX_SIZE,
  @write_together(1) write_data: WIDTH,
  @write_together(1) @go write_en: 1,
) -> (...);

This defines two groups. The first group requires that write_en and write_data signals together while the second requires that addr0 and addr1 are driven together.

Note that @write_together specifications cannot encode implication of the form "if port x is driven then y should be driven".


Used by papercut and canonicalize. Defines a combinational path n between a set of an input ports and an output port.

primitive comb_mem_d1<"static"=1>[WIDTH, SIZE, IDX_SIZE](
  @read_together(1) addr0: IDX_SIZE, ...
) -> (
  @read_together(1) read_data: WIDTH, ...

This requires that when read_data is used then addr0 must be driven. Note that each group must have exactly one output port in it.


Marks a cell or a port as a purely datapath component, i.e., the output does not propagate into a guard or another control signal. See this issue for the full set of constraints.

When we have following two conditions:

  1. An input port is marked with @data in the component definitions, and
  2. The cell instance is marked as @data

The backend generate 'x as the default value for the assignment to the port instead of '0. Additionally, if the port has exactly one assignment, the backend removes the guard entirely and produces a continuous assignment.

This represents the optimization:

in = g ? out : 'x


in = out;

Since the value 'x can be replaced with anything.