Number Theoretic Transform (NTT)

The number theoretic transform is a generalization of the fast Fourier transform that uses nth primitive root of unity based upon a quotient ring instead of a field of complex numbers.

It is commonly used to speed up computer arithmetic, such as the multiplication of large integers and large degree polynomials. The pipeline produced here is based upon this paper, which also provides some background information on NTT.

The NTT pipeline frontend lives in the ntt folder in the Calyx repository and generates the pipeline for the NTT transform.

The file contains the entire program required to generate NTT pipelines. In order to generate a pipeline with bit width 32, input size 4, and modulus value 97:

./frontends/ntt-pipeline/ -b=32 -n=4 -q=97


Install the calyx-py library.

The generator also produces a table to illustrate which operations are occurring during each stage of the pipeline. This requires installing PrettyTable:

pip3 install prettytable numpy

Fud Stage

The NTT pipeline defines an external fud stage to transform configuration files into Calyx programs. To install, run:

fud register ntt -p frontends/ntt-pipeline/fud/ && fud check

This should report the newly installed ntt stage in the configuration.

Configuration Files

Configurations files simply specify command line parameters:

  "input_bitwidth": 32,
  "input_size": 4,
  "modulus": 97

Command Line Options

The command line options configure the bit width, size, and modulus value of the pipeline.

  • --input_bitwidth: The bit width of each value in the input array.
  • --input_size: The length (or size) of the input array.
  • --modulus: The (prime) modulus value used during the transformation.
  • --parallel_reduction: Decreases fan-out by reducing the number of groups executed in parallel by this factor.